App Note: IsoPlexis’ Functional Proteomics Reveals Unique Secretome Signatures & Insights into Neuroinflammation

  • IsoPlexis’ Neuroinflammation App Note highlights how the Single Cell Secretome, CodePlex Secretome, and Single-Cell Intracellular Proteome solutions can identify inflammatory biomarkers and uncover the mechanisms of inflammation.
  • Inflammation plays a key pathogenic role in a wide range of disorders and diseases. IsoPlexis’ platform uniquely connects each cytokine and chemokine back to the individual cell, and functionally defines each cell type, improving researchers’ understanding of the mechanisms of inflammation and driving the development of more effective therapies.
  • The Neuroinflammation App Note addresses the role IsoPlexis plays in overcoming challenges in studying neuroinflammation, identifying biomarkers of neuroinflammation, and characterizing the role of neuroinflammation in some cases of COVID-19. Other recent studies on neuroinflammation have examined its relationship with Multiple Sclerosis and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

IsoPlexis Unique & Predictive Proteomic Product Suite

IsoPlexis’ latest App Note highlights three solutions, Single-Cell Secretome, CodePlex Secretome, and Single-Cell Intracellular Proteome, and how researchers have utilized them in various cases involving neuroinflammation, neurotoxicity, etc. Inflammation involves many inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, and many other different cell types. Inflammation plays a key pathogenic role in all sorts of disorders and diseases, and heterogeneity in cytokine production and aberrant cytokine signatures can create challenges in assessing immune related adverse effects. IsoPlexis’ unique and predictive platform speeds up the time it takes to run multiplexed analyses, accelerating researchers’ workflows by functionally defining each cell type to inform more effective therapies. The Neuroinflammation App Note addresses topics including overcoming challenges in neuroinflammation, mechanisms of neuroinflammation and disease progression, biomarkers of neurotoxicity and immune-related adverse events, and the role of neuroinflammation in neurological manifestations of COVID-19.

Neuroinflammation has been a recent topic of interest in science communities due to growing evidence of its relationship with COVID-19. Studies have shown that neurological symptoms may be more prevalent than once thought in those diagnosed with COVID-19. Some younger patients have shown difficulty concentrating all the way to forgetting names of people they know well and unable to follow business conversations.1 In more severe cases of COVID-19, generally seen in those patients who have been hospitalized, these symptoms can develop into seizures, dementia-like confusion, and more. IsoPlexis’ technology was used recently in a study done at Yale where a patient presented with neurological symptoms like those previously described. Inflammatory markers were identified in patient plasma and CSF, with a unique signature appearing only in CSF. This is notable as the patients CSF did not test positive for SARS-CoV-2, the virus was only detected in the plasma.2 This finding falls in line with what other recent studies have found, that the severe inflammatory response is leading to inflammation in the brain, which is causing a lot of symptoms seen in COVID-19 patients. So, not all symptoms are caused by the virus itself. With the studies conducted so far, not enough evidence has been found to conclude that the virus is able to infiltrate the brain, so studying neuroinflammation is critical in mitigating these increasingly common symptoms.1

The study of neuroinflammation is of critical interest beyond its relevance to current COVID-19 research. Recent studies have looked at neuroinflammation as a biomarker or causal factor for a wide range of complex diseases and disorders. A study recently conducted at Yale identified increased expression of genes connected to T cell activation and cytotoxicity from the CSF of patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) compared to health donors.3-4 IsoPlexis has also studied the role of inflammation in MS and the differences in polyfunctionality and polyfunctional strength in patients with MS versus health controls.5 You can read more about this case in the Neuroinflammation App Note.

The impacts of neuroinflammation on the body are far-reaching, and it is safe to say that it has affects that have yet to be identified. Recent research has examined the potential relationship between neuroinflammation and Autism Spectrum Disorder in males.6 In such a promising field in a period of great growth, IsoPlexis functional proteomics provides the deep immune profiling necessary to uncover the mechanisms of neuroinflammation associated with complex diseases and disorders, accelerating the identification and development of effective therapies.

Download the App Note below to learn more:



  1. Columbia University Irving Medical Center. Even Mild Cases Can Cause “COVID-19 Fog.” Columbia, 2020.
  2. Farhadian S, et al. Acute encephalopathy with elevated CSF inflammatory markers as the initial presentation of COVID-19. BMC Neurology 20: 284, 2020.
  3. T Cell Gene Expression in Multiple Sclerosis CSF Reflects Elevated Activation, Cytotoxicity. GenomeWeb, 2020.
  4. Pappalardo J, et al. Transcriptomic and clonal characterization of T cells in the human central nervous system. Science Immunology 5: eabb8786, 2020.
  5. Fujiwara M, et al. Enhanced TLR2 Responses in Multiple Sclerosis. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 193: 313-326, 2018.
  6. Zürcher NR, et al. [11C]PBR28 MR-PET imaging reveals lower regional brain expression of translocator protein (TSPO) in young adult males with autism spectrum disorder. Molecular Psychiatry, 2020.
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